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Towards Green Building

Clean Rooms – Design & Built


Posted on: July 23rd, 2013 by mok




Customer Nature
Jabatan Haiwan Veterinary Operating Theatre (Class 1K)
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Electronics (Class 10K)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Thin Film Coating (Class 10K)
Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Cytotoxic Drug Reconstitution (Class 10K)
Boots Pharmaceuticals Optrex Eye Drop Production (Class 10K)
Ampri Rubberware Industries S/B. Gloves Laundry & Packing (Class 10 & 100)
Ain Medicare Sdn. Bhd. New Pharmaceutical Plant (Class 1K, 10K & 100K)
Kien Hien Hong Ginseng S/B GMP Controlled Room (Ginseng Pills & Powder)
Samsung Corning S/B Television Assembling Plant (Class 100K)
Raza Manufacturing S/B Pharmaceutical Plant (Class 100K)
Riverstone Resources S/B Gloves Packaging (Class 100K)
Contract Latex Dippers S/B Gloves Drying (Class 100K)
Hospital Sultanah Aminah Total Parentenal Nutrition Cleanroom (Class 10K)
Sterling Drug Pharmaceutical Production (Class 10K)
Malaysian Sheet Glass S/B Glass Production (Class 150K)
Asian Vista Sdn. Bhd. Traditional Medicine Production (Class 100K)
Iris Technologies Sdn. Bhd. Smart Card Production (Class 10K)
Hong Yang Hoo T.Y.T. S/B Traditional Medicine Prod. (Class 100K)
Malaysian Hoya Lens S/B Optical Lenses Hard Coat Room (Class 100K)
Malaysian Sheet Glass S/B Class 10K Cleanroom @ 21oC @ 25% RH
Pactuco Containers (Asia) S/B Electronics Components Containers (Class 1K)
Guthrie Medicare Products S/B Surgical Gloves Packaging (Class 100K)
Hospital Kuala Terengganu CDR & TPN Cleanroom (Class 10K & 100K)



Cleanroom design technology had its conception during the World War II in the rush to expand the science of chemical and biological armament. The technology’s continued development paced the needs of the race into space.

The microelectronics industry is the first to recognize, adopt and further develop the cleanroom technology to meet the challenge of manufacturing in its Lilliputian world, where micrometer-sized particles are like automobile-sized boulders, and impurities of the order of parts per trillion can be crucial.

Today, we can find cleanrooms in almost every field, namely - microelectronics & semiconductor, pharmaceuticals & cosmetics, electricals, research & scientific laboratories, healthcare, optical, chemical plants, petrochemical, rubber gloves, food & beverage and even in the agriculture.



Cleanroom is defined as ‘a room in which the concentration of airborne particles is controlled to specified limits’.

The U.S. Federal Standard 209E is generally referred to in the design and classification of cleanrooms. A summary of the standard is given below:



The classification of a cleanroom may be carried out when the room is  :

  • as built; or
  • at rest; or
  • operational.



Industrial, Biological And Biohazard Cleanrooms.                                          

Apart from classifying cleanrooms according to their respective cleanliness level, cleanrooms may be further classified according to their basic general functions such as industrial cleanrooms, biological cleanrooms and biohazard cleanrooms.

Industrial cleanrooms are the most common type of cleanrooms. For these cleanrooms, the particles concentration level is the primary concern.

Biological cleanrooms are primarily concerned with the concentration of airborne micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteria and fungi.

Biohazard cleanrooms are designed for not only to minimize the airborne microorganism level within their environment but also to minimize the potential ‘leakage’ of materials handled within which are biologically hazardous, e.g. cytotoxic drugs.

Turbulent Flow And Laminar Flow Cleanrooms.                                              

Conventionally, cleanrooms are turbulent flow type and is most widely used. In such cleanrooms, the particles concentration levels are controlled/achieved by the principle of dilution of particles concentration. Clean air is constantly being produced and supplied at a specified rate to mix and dilute the particles concentration of the air within these cleanrooms.


Turbulent flow designs are most suitable for Class 1,000, Class 10,000 and Class 100,000 cleanrooms. Come less critical Class 100 cleanrooms can also capitalize o~ the economies of the turbulent flow systems


The laminar flow design is necessary for achieving more critical Class 100, Class 10 and cleaner cleanrooms. In this approach, contaminants are systematically and unidirectional cleanse from the environment. The laminar flow methodology can be applied either vertically or horizontally.




The following table provides a guide on the level of cleanliness required for cleanrooms in various fields.





CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

  1. Construction materials should be non-particulating type with smooth surfaces.
  2. All particulating surfaces must be coated.
  3. All edges to be rounded.
  4. Covings to be laid on all 90° joints.
  5. All gaps to be sealed or minimized to minimize air losses.
  6. Teardrop lightings and/or biolight fittings to be used where relevant to minimize interruptions to the cleanroom’s airflow pattern and/or to prevent particulate ingress.
  7. Flooring systems must be non-particulating type.

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